The most critical problems that the world has to face today are environmental and climatic problems. The world becomes more and more filthy, clean water sources are polluted, and the quality of life decreases due to unplanned production and consumption. To prevent the realization of these disaster scenarios, many studies are being carried out by the United Nations. The Kyoto Protocol, one of the most important protocols, is an international agreement established to provide an environment for combating global warming and climate change. This agreement, an international agreement, was signed by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The countries that are parties to the relevant Kyoto Protocol have guaranteed to reduce the release of carbon dioxide and other harmful gases or, if this is not possible, to increase their rights by trading emissions. The Kyoto Protocol was signed in 1997 and entered into force in 2005. The first stage goal of the Kyoto Protocol is to reduce the emission values of countries to the emission values of 1990.
The Kyoto Protocol has now reached such large areas that it covers more than 160 countries and more than 55% of its greenhouse gas emissions. It is envisaged that the states parties to the Kyoto Protocol will make serious investments. According to this, the investments to be made by the states parties to the Kyoto Protocol are listed as follows;
- Chennalization to alternative energy sources to reduce the rates of methane and carbon dioxide gases released into the atmosphere
- Reducing the greenhouse gas released into the atmosphere to 5% levels
- Using innovative and environmentally friendly fuels such as biodiesel by leaving fossil fuels
- Re-legislation in order to reduce the emission values that arise in subjects such as industry, motor vehicles, and heating
- Realization of activities such as heating, vehicle fuel, industrial production by consuming less energy
- Taxation at higher rates and levels from those who consume fuel or produce carbon at levels exceeding the determined amounts
- Reorganization of waste processes in plants that use high levels of energy, such as cement production or iron and steel production and processing
- Changing the systems that produce excess carbon in the productions made within the thermal power plants
- Promoting all renewable energy sources, especially solar energy
As you can see, the Kyoto Protocol is an environmentally-friendly protocol that imposes many obligations. In this context, it is accepted that the Kyoto Protocol plays an active role in reducing the average temperature in the world.
Turkey joined the Kyoto Protocol in 2004. In 1997, when the Kyoto Protocol was signed, however, since Turkey was not among the signatories yet, it was not determined which emission values Turkey should provide and the numerical limits it should comply with. Thanks to the Kyoto Protocol, which was accepted within the European Union Harmonization Process, studies have been started to prevent greenhouse gas emissions in Turkey. As a result, Turkey has become one of the countries that show the most orientation towards renewable energy among developing countries. Therefore, the Kyoto Protocol stands out as a protocol that preserves its functionality for Turkey.